The Mass Algae Culture system that is easily integrated with the Sola Roof is an excellent Biomass Production system that is able to convert solar energy to vegetable oil at a rate that is several times better than other Biomass Crops.
Vegetable oil can be used directly in slightly modified diesel engines. In the USA, this is called SVO. The engines start on bio-diesel or petrodiesel. After thay are warm, they switch, usually under manual control, to SVO. Just before shutdown, they switch back. (The switching can be automated, but most current users enjoy being involved with their engine.) The advantage of SVO is that less processing of the fuel is required.
The Veg Oil? can be converted to Bio Diesel, which is a renewable energy fuel that can be produced from a number of sources including animal fats, algae-sourced oil and vegetable oils by lipid transesterification. It has very similar properties to petroleum-based diesel, and can be used as a complete replacement or as a mixture of petroleum and biodiesel. Because bioDiesel is a renewable fuel, can replace petroleum diesel in current engines, and can be transported and sold using the current infrastructure, it is one of the most realistic candidates to replace fossil fuel as the world's primary transportation energy source.
In addition, Bio Diesel is non-flammable and non-explosive (flash point 150°C for biodiesel as compared to 64°C for petrodiesel). It is also biodegradable, non-toxic, and significantly reduces toxic and other emissions when burned as a fuel. There are many advantages to Veg Oil? as compared to desiel refined from non renewable petroleum for conversion to Bio Diesel, as follows:
- Biodiesel reduces emissions carbon monoxide (CO) by approximately 50% and carbon dioxide by 78.45%.
- Biodiesel contains less aromatic hydrocarbons: benzofluoranthene: 56%; Benzopyrenes: 71%.
- It also eliminates sulfur emissions (SO 2?), because biodiesel doesn't include sulfur.
- Reduces by as much as 65% the emission of particulates (small particles).
- Biodiesel does produce more N Ox? emissions than petrodiesel, but these emissions can be reduced through adjustments to the injection timing and through the use of catalytic converters. Petrodiesel vehicles have generally not included catalytic converters because the sulfur content in that fuel destroys the devices, but biodiesel does not contain sulfur. Beginning in 2006, diesel sold in the USA must be low sulphur, so catalytic convertors for diesels should begin to appear. Europe already uses low-sulphur diesel.
- Biodiesel has slightly more problems with below freezing temperatures than petro-diesel.
- It has a higher cetane rating (less knocking) than petrodiesel
Chemically, it is a fuel comprised of mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids. The transesterification production process removes glycerol from the oil.
Pure biodiesel (BD100 or B100) can be used in any petroleum diesel engine, though it is more commonly used in lower concentrations. Some areas that have mandated ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) petroleum, which changes the natural viscosity of the fuel because certain materials have been removed. Additives are required to make it properly flow in engines, and biodiesel is one popular alternative. Ranges as low as 2% (BD 2? or B2) have been shown to restore lubricity. Also, many municipalities have started using 5% biodiesel (BD 5? or B5) in snow-removal equipment and other systems. In most areas of the USA, there is grass-roots biodiesel manufacture and use.